Ilustraciones para la web de Abacus Consulting Technologies.
Estrategias de mercado y geomarketing.
Location intelligence, Figura 2
Ilustraciones para la web de Abacus Consulting Technologies.
Estrategias de mercado y geomarketing.
Location intelligence, Figura 2
Si no conoces el trabajo de Antonio Petruccelli (Fort Lee, NJ, EEUU, 1907-1994), merece la pena que le prestes unos minutos de atención.
Ilustrador, diseñador, cartógrafo y diagramador muy inspirador, uno de los grandes del siglo XX.
Si pones en Google su nombre aparecen bastantes de sus fantásticas portadas para Fortune Magazine (desde 1935 hasta 1945) y The New Yorker.
Aquí os dejo algunas de sus gráficas.
US War Department, enero 1941
Antonio Petruccelli, The World´s Largest Distillery
Antonio Petruccelli, Fortune Magazine, 1942
The main dynamics of the US Technological mobilization for war.
One big family, A Management Chart, Febrero, 1940
Portada de Fortune, junio 1937
Estos son algunos links que recogen su trabajo:
· Master Illustrator, Antonio Petruccelli
· Antonio Petruccelli en Fulltable, cronología de sus trabajos (muy recomendable)
· Vintage Fortune en Facebook
Atlas zu Alex. v. Humboldt’s Kosmos in zweiundvierzig
Infographic on the composition of the earth’s crust
Verlag von Krais & Hoffmann
42 infografías para la historia.
No sólo un atlas. No sólo mapas.
Incluyen increíbles ilustraciones para explicar los fenómenos naturales.
Galería en Flickr
The rise of thematic or special purpose cartography, which focuses on mapping the distribution of single or multiple interrelated phenomena, had its origins in the advances in the natural sciences in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, particularly with the collection of vast amounts of scientific data and the search for innovative techniques of presenting this data graphically. Examples of early physical geography atlases in the Library of Congress include Alexander von Humboldt’s Atlas gographique et physique du royaume de la Nouvelle-Espagne (Paris, 1811), which records his observations during a 1799 to 1804 expedition to South and Central America; Heinrich Berghaus’s three-volume Physikalischer Atlas (Gotha, 1845 1848), the first atlas to portray the physical geography of the world; Alexander Keith Johnston’s Physical Atlas (Edinburgh, 1848), an English adaptation of the Berghaus atlas; and Traugott Broome’s Atlas zu Alex. v. Humboldt’s Kosmos [Stuttgart, 1851 1853], which was prepared to accompany Humboldt’s five-volume Kosmos, a complete physical geography of the universe.
Se complica el proceso de paz en Cercano Oriente.
Papeles robados de ordenadores del Departamento de Negociación de la Organización para la Liberación de Palestina (OLP).
The Guardian, 25 de enero
Jerusalem Post de ayer.
Jerusalem Post de hoy.
The ‘Napkin Map’
El mapa de la negociación.
La Autoridad Palestina permite la anexión virtual de los asentamientos ilegales por Israel en Jerusalem Este.
Outline of Post-War New World Map
New World Moral Order
Maurice Gomberg, Philadelphia
Propuesta de EEUU.
Librería del Congreso.
The map was self-published by Gomberg and offered for sale for $1 in magazines such as American Teacher in 1942 and Survey Graphic in 1944.
Se puede leer:
Punto 18: ‘The areas known as Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, Switzerland, France, Spain, Portugal, the island of Corsica and eventually Italy and the islands of Sardinia and Sicily shall be unified as a demilitarized, federated “United States of Europe”. ‘
This map was discovered by Helen Somers in a window in Philadelphia during World War II. It was completed in October 1941, before Pearl Harbor, was printed in bright colors by a cartographer named Maurice Gomberg in Philadelphia in 1942, and was displayed in his store window. Helen Somers immediately recognized the significance of the map and purchased several. At least a few original copies are still in existence, including one in the Library of Congress in Washington, DC.
“OUR POLICY SHALL BE THIS:
1. We, the U.S.A., in cooperation with our allies, for reasons of our national safety and in the interests of international morality, are determined to crush and completely destroy the military power of the Axis aggressors, and their satellites regardless of cost, effort and time necessary to accomplish this task.
2. The old world order of colonial oppression, exploitation of dominions, rival imperialism and mercenary balance of power diplomacy; of majesties, dictators, privileged minorities, plutocratic monopolists and similar social parasites; the corrupted order responsible for the present world cataclysm, endangering our national safety and peaceful process, shall never rise again.
3. A New World Moral Order for permanent peace and freedom shall be established at the successful conclusion of the present war.
4. For reasons of history, economic structure, favorable geography and the welfare of mankind, the U.S.A. must, altruistically, assume the leadership of the newly established, democratic world order.
5. To reduce the burden and criminal waste of armaments expenditures everywhere in the world, the U.S.A., with the cooperation of Latin-America, the British Commonwealth of Nations, and the U.S.S.R. shall undertake to guarantee peace to the nations which will be permanently disarmed and demilitarized after the conclusion of the present war.
6. In order to be able, in the fulfillment of our obligations, to effectively prevent the possibility of a recurrence of another world cataclysm, the invincibility of the U.S.A. as a military, naval and air power, shall be the major prerequisite.
7. For realistic considerations of strategy and our invulnerability, it is imperative that the U.S.A. shall obtain relinquishment of controls of their possessions from all foreign Powers in the entire Western Hemisphere, it’s surrounding waters and strategic island outposts as outlined on accompanying map.
8. For considerations of hemispheric defense and in the spirit and tradition of the new Monroe Doctrine of hemispheric solidarity and the “Good Neighbor” policy, the U.S.A. with the consent of the Latin-American Republics, shall obtain control and protectorate rights of the relinquished territories.
9. To strengthen our position in the Caribbean area which is of obvious importance to hemispheric defense, all possible inducements shall be offered to our neighbors of Central America and the West Indies to facilitate their entrance as equal states of the U.S.A. as outlined on map.
10. To fortify the politico-economic unity of the Western Hemisphere, the U.S.A. shall promote and assist the unification of South America into a well organized, democratic, federated “United States of South America.”
11. The liberated British, French and Netherlands Guiana shall be reorganized as one state of the U.S.S.A.
12. All Powers shall relinquish their controls of their colonial, mandate and strategic island possessions everywhere in the world.
13. The British Commonwealth of Nations, the second military and naval Power of importance cooperating in a binding compact with the U.S.A. as a Power for freedom, shall retain and acquire control such territories, peace-security bases and strategic islands outposts essential for the maintenance of world peace and freedom as outlines on the map.
14. The U.S.S.R., the third military Power of importance cooperating with the U.S.A. as a Power for freedom and the maintenance of world peace, shall acquire control of the liberated, disorganized adjacent areas and those of Germany-Austria to be re-educated and eventually incorporated as equal republics of the U.S.S.R., as approximately outlined on map.
15. A world League of Nationalities with arbitration and supervision powers shall be organized.
16. A World Court with punitive powers of absolute boycott, quarantine, blockade and occupation by international police, against lawbreakers of international morality shall be organized.
17. The U.S.A. with the close cooperation of the United States of South America, the British Commonwealth of Nations, the U.S.S.R. and the World League of Nationalities, shall promote and assist in the unification of the relinquished territories and the areas at present unsoundly divided into well organized democratic and absolutely demilitarized republics as approximately on the map.
18. The areas known as Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, Switzerland, France, Spain, Portugal, the island of Corsica, and eventually Italy and the islands of Sardinia and Sicily shall be unified as a demilitarized, federated “United States of Europe.”
19. The areas known as Sweden, Norway, Denmark and the Spitsbergen islands shall be unified as a demilitarized, federated “United States of Scandinavia.”
20. The continent of Africa shall be reorganized and unified as a demilitarized, federated “Union of African Republics.”
21. The areas of Saudi Arabia, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Hejas, Aden and Oman, shall be unified as a demilitarized union of “Arabian Federated Republics.”
22. The areas known as India, including Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma shall be unified as a demilitarized “federated Republics of India.”
23. The areas known as China, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Thailand, Malaya, Indo-China and Korea, shall be unified as a demilitarized, federated “United Republics of China.”
24. The areas known as Greece, Macedonia, Albania, Crete, Dodecanese and adjacent islands in the Aegean sea shall be unified as a demilitarized “Federal Republic of Greece.”
25. The areas known as Eire and Northern Ireland shall be unified as a demilitarized independent republic of “Eire.”
26. The area of the Holy Land of the ancient Hebrews, at present known as Palestine and Trans-Jordan, and the adjacent requisite regions as outlined on map, for considerations of history and the imperative necessity to alleviate a post war refugee problem, shall be unified as a demilitarized republic of “Hebrewland.”
27. The area known as European Turkey, adjacent to the Dardanelles, sea of Marmora and Bosporus, for considerations of realistic peace strategy shall be placed under joint control of the U.S.S.R. and Turkey.
28. The area known as Turkey shall be a demilitarized independent republic of “Turkey.”
29. All problems of exchange, transfer and repatriation of populations shall be administered by the World League of Nationalities.
30. The criminal perpetrators and their partners in guilt of this hideous war shall be brought to justice and unforgettable punishment administered.
31. All subjects of Japan and all persons of Japanese origin of doubtful loyalty shall be expelled from the entire Western Hemisphere, U.S.A. protectorates and strategic island outposts and their property confiscated for post-war reconstruction needs.
32. All subjects of Germany and Italy and all persons of German and Italian origin known as active supporters of Nazi and fascist ideologies shall be treated similarly.
33. German, Italian, Japanese immigration to the Western Hemisphere, its protectorates and island outposts shall be indefinitely stopped.
34. All persons of German origin in East Prussia and the Rhineland shall be transferred to inner Germany and the regions permanently de-Prussianized.
35. All persons of German, Italian and Japanese origin shall be permanently expelled from their now conquered territories and their property confiscated for post-war construction needs.
36. To cleanse the populations of the defeated Axis aggressors of the intoxication of military chauvinism; to effectuate the removal and destruction of their potential military establishments; to recover the accumulated loot and to re-educate them for their eventual membership in the Family of Nations, the areas of Germany-Austria, Italy and Japan shall be hermetically and indefinitely quarantined and administered by appointed Governors subject to supervision by the world League of Nationalities.
37. All resources, industrial and labor capacity of quarantined areas shall be employed for the post war restoration and reconstruction needs.
38. To reduce the numerical power of the aggressor nations, as a potential military advantage, a Population Control Policy shall be elaborated and applied in the quarantined area.
39. In the New World Moral Order which we seek to establish, besides the essential political freedoms, the following fundamental economic changes are imperative:
(a) Nationalization of all natural resources and equitable distribution of same to all nations…everywhere in the world;
(b) Nationalization of international banking, foreign investments, railroads and power plants….everywhere in the world;
(c) Nationalization of all armaments producing establishments by all military powers;
(d) Federal control of foreign commerce and shipping;
(e) The establishment of a world common monetary system;
(f) World wide limitations of interest rates to a maximum of two percent;
40. To retain the victory and leadership of our united democratic effort….the aim of which is not vengeance or exploitation, but freedom and security to all nations for peaceful progress….the unified “Supreme War Command of the United Nations” at the conclusion of the present war, shall be recognized and transformed into a permanent “Supreme Military and Economic Council” collaborating with the World League of Nationalities in post war construction and to enforce world peace.
41. The “Supreme Military and Economic Council” shall appoint the Governors to administer the quarantined areas until their eventual parole.
For this purposeful beginning we must fight until absolute victory.”
Compare the 1942 Map to the US Commands, which reflect America’s deployment of military might and wars of conquest (Editor of Global Research)
Irish Times encantado.
Proponía una Irlanda unida
‘The areas known as Eire and Northern Ireland shall be unified as a demilitarized independent republic of “Eire.”
También un Estado hebreo.
Smaller entities include Eire (the whole of Ireland), Greece (including Albania), Turkey (excluding European Turkey), Hebrewland (the Holy Land plus Jordan) and Japan. The three axis states (Germany, Italy and Japan) were to be ‘quarantained’ until they could be readmitted in the family of nations.
El mundo real en 1945
21 December 2010
ESA’s 2009 global land cover map has been released and is now available to the public online from the ‘GlobCover’ website. GlobCover 2009 proves the sharpest possible global land cover map can be created within a year.
The map was produced using 12 months of data from Envisat’s Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at a resolution of 300 m.
ESA and Belgium’s Université catholique de Louvain created the map using software developed by Medias France and Germany’s Brockmann Consult on data collected from 1 January to 31 December 2009. GlobCover 2009 was generated within a year of acquiring the final satellite data.
The map’s legend uses the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation’s Land Cover Classification System.
Some 8000 people have downloaded the previous version, GlobCover 2005. These maps are useful for studying the effects of climate change, conserving biodiversity and managing natural resources.
Credits: ESA 2010 and Université Catholique de Louvain
JOACHIM OTTENS (Padre) 1663-1719
REINER AND JOSUA OTTENS (hijos)
(1698-1750 and 1704-1765)
The family business of print and map selling was founded by Joachim Ottens but the active period of map publishing was concentrated in the years between 1720 and 1750 when the brothers, Reiner and Joshua, produced enormous collections of maps, some as large as 15 volumes. These, including copies of practically all maps available at the time, were made up to order and were magnificently coloured. Besides these specially prepared collections they also issued single-volume atlases with varying contents as well as pocket atlases.
Cartografía en venta.
Publisher: de L’ISLE, G. / OTTENS, R. / I.
Title: Hemisphere meridional pour voir plus distinctement les terres australes. . .
Published in: Amsterdam, 1740
Size: 17.6 x 17.9 inches.
44.7 x 45.4 cm.
With the imprint of the Ottens family – rare. An Antarctic map including a recounting of the discovery of an island south of the Cape of Good Hope which was named Cap de la Circoncision in 1739. A small inset map of the discovered island appears in the lower right.
This circular map show the world in an unusual way: using the Poles as the center point of hemispheres that extend to the Equator.
With a text panel in upper left corner : Nouvelles découvertes de 1739 au sud du cap de bonne Esperance par les ordre de M. de la compagnie des Indes. Dressee sur les memoires et sur la carte originale de M. Lozier Bouvet cahrge de cette expédition. Same text in Dutch in upper right corner.
Joachim Ottens (1663 – 1719) and his sons Renier and Joshua were prominent Dutch booksellers and map publishers from about 1680 to 1790. Joachim, the founder of the firm, was initially employed as a copperplate engraver by Frederick de Wit. In 1711 Joachim founded his own firm. Though Joachim died only a few years later, his sons Renier and Joshua took over the firm and presided over its most prolific period.
European Distance Chart, Reiner and Josua Ottens, c.1750
OLIOMETRIA EUROPAE MAXIME AUTEM GERMANIAE AC FINITIMORUM LOCURUM EX OFFICINA R. & J. OTTS AMST. An interesting table listing many European towns and cities plus Bethlehem.
Publisher: OTTENS, R. / I.
Title: Poliometria Europae Maxime Autem Germaniae ac Finitimorum Locorum. . .
Published in: Amsterdam, 1720
48.6 x 55.3 cm.
This unusual thematic chart shows the traveling distances from various European cities in a style that is still used in charts today.
Reiner & Josua Ottens: Carte Quirepresente Toutes Les Pieces Qui Sont Comprises Dans L’Architecture Militaire, ou L’Arte Des Fortifications . . .
Description: Scarce map showing approximately 83 smaller illustrations on all aspects of the military sciences, including methods for the construction of fortresses; artillery; sieges of cities; battles; army units, attacks from seaside etc., but Caspar Specht. The text of the legend in Dutch, text in the illustrations in French. Gorgeous old color example.
Title: Carte Quirepresente Toutes Les Pieces Qui Sont Comprises Dans L’Architecture Militaire, ou L’Arte Des Fortifications . . .
Map Maker: Reiner & Josua Ottens
Place / Date: Amsterdam / 1720
Reiner & Josua Ottens: [Wall Map of Spain & Portugal] Novissima et Accuratissima Tabula Qua Gallaeciae et Legionis Regna, Asturiarum … Regnorum Arragoniae et Navarra, Principatus Cataloniae . . .
Title: [Wall Map of Spain & Portugal] Novissima et Accuratissima Tabula Qua Gallaeciae et Legionis Regna, Asturiarum … Regnorum Arragoniae et Navarra, Principatus Cataloniae . . .
Map Maker: Reiner & Josua Ottens
Place / Date: Amsterdam / 1740
Gorgeous full color example of Luggert van Anse’s 4 sheet map of Spain, Portugal and the Balaeric Islands, joined flawlessly and presented here as a wall map.
Includes a large cartouche with explanations of the political divisions of Spain and Portugal in French and Dutch, headed by coat of arms and 6 compass roses. An uncommon wall map of Spain and Portugal. Luggert van Anse was engraver for Allard, Visscher and van Keulen. This edition was published by Ottens, with additions and corrections. A spectacular example.
Johannes De Ram / Reiner & Josua Ottens: Regni Angliae Nova Tabula, Exhibens Principatum Walliae, & aliarum Provincia rum Civitatum, Oppidorum, una cum itineribus ab uno in aliam Civitatem
Title: Regni Angliae Nova Tabula, Exhibens Principatum Walliae, & aliarum Provincia rum Civitatum, Oppidorum, una cum itineribus ab uno in aliam Civitatem
Map Maker: Johannes De Ram / Reiner & Josua Ottens
Place / Date: Amsterdam / 1725
Size: 23 x 19.5 inches
Third state of De Ram’s rare map of England, updated and corrected by Reiner & Josua Ottens.
Includes a massive Alphabetical Table of the Cities and Market-Townes on the great roads in England Y Wales, Their Latitude and Longitude and in what County they are Lying . . . Ornate cartouche and rich full color.
Totius Neobelgii nova et accuratissima Tabula
Allard, Hugo (1625 – 1691)/Ottens, Reiner (1698 – 1750) and Ottens, Joshua (1704-1765)
Librería: W. Graham Arader III gallery (New York, NY, U.S.A.)
A MAP OF NEW ENGLAND CONTAINING THE FAMOUS “RESTITUTIO” VIEW Copper-plate engraving with original hand color: plate size 181/2″ x 213/4″ Reference: Philip D. Burden, The Mapping of North America: A List of Printed Maps 1511-1670 (Rickmansworth, 1996), 476-477. This map is one of five that closely follows the Visscher Novii Belgii. It is a magnificent version of Hugo Allard’s edition published by the Ottens brothers, after their purchase of Allard’s plate in 1708, and shows the famous “Restitutio” view of New York. In 1664, the English successfully captured New Amsterdam and renamed it New York. The Dutch were entirely unable to rival the English, but for one brief episode between 1673 and 1674 when they recaptured the city and renamed it New Amsterdam. It was then that this updated version of Visscher’s map was first engraved replacing the inset view of New York with what became dubbed the “Restituto” view. The inset celebrated the ‘restoration’ of New Amsterdam to Holland, in August 1673, by the fleet under the command of Cornelius Evertsen. The figure on the pedestal is holding a laurel of victory, while the updated glimpse at the southern tip of Manhattan shows a city that has grown significantly, and is a triumphant indication of Dutch pride in its recapture. Unlike the Visscher view, here the town is depicted from the east. On the right-hand side of the view is part of the wall that became Wall Street, with its guardhouse and gate. To its right are new settlements that were just beginning to crop up north of the wall. This view actually shows the Dutch capture of the town in progress, with soldiers marching along the quay and a cannon firing from the fort. Despite the fact that the city was returned to the British under the Treaty of Breda the following year, this map with the “Restitutio” view continued to be published for almost a century by Dutch mapmakers, perhaps for reasons of nostalgic national pride. By this time, Dutch overseas power was waning, particularly in America. This view, with its grandiose presentation of momentary triumph, played to the need for some affirmation of Dutch colonial power even in the face of overwhelming evidence to its demise
Schenk Ottens 1700 (1735) – India
TITLE Carte des Côtes de Malabar et de Coromandel
PLACE ISSUED Amsterdam
FIRST EDITION 1700
THIS EDITION 1735
SIZE (hxw cms) 44.1 x 57.2
AREA SHOWN India
TECHNIQUE Copper engraving
CONDITION The overall quality of this antique map is excellent
DESCRIPTION Reiner and Joshua Ottens’ re-issue of Schenk’s large map of India. Magnificent original colour.
Joachim Ottens and his sons Renier (d.1750) and Joshua (d.1765), were prominent Dutch booksellers and map publishers from about 1680 to 1790. Joachim was initially employed as a copperplate engraver by Frederick de Wit (1630-1706), but founded his own business in 1711. Although he died only a few years later, his sons Renier and Joshua took over the firm and presided over its most prolific period. The Ottens family’s most notable contribution to cartography was its enormous made-to-order multi-volume atlases such as the Atlas Major.
Reiner Ottens. Atlas maior cvm generales omnivm totius orbis regnorvm . . .Amsterdam 1729. Page 2 – Page 3 Hand-colored engraving
Visualización de las relaciones de amistad en Facebook.
Por Paul Butler, ingeniero de la red social.
‘Visualizing data is like photography. Instead of starting with a blank canvas, you manipulate the lens used to present the data from a certain angle.
When the data is the social graph of 500 million people, there are a lot of lenses through which you can view it. One that piqued my curiosity was the locality of friendship. I was interested in seeing how geography and political borders affected where people lived relative to their friends. I wanted a visualization that would show which cities had a lot of friendships between them.
I began by taking a sample of about ten million pairs of friends from Apache Hive, our data warehouse. I combined that data with each user’s current city and summed the number of friends between each pair of cities. Then I merged the data with the longitude and latitude of each city.
At that point, I began exploring it in R, an open-source statistics environment. As a sanity check, I plotted points at some of the latitude and longitude coordinates. To my relief, what I saw was roughly an outline of the world. Next I erased the dots and plotted lines between the points. After a few minutes of rendering, a big white blob appeared in the center of the map. Some of the outer edges of the blob vaguely resembled the continents, but it was clear that I had too much data to get interesting results just by drawing lines. I thought that making the lines semi-transparent would do the trick, but I quickly realized that my graphing environment couldn’t handle enough shades of color for it to work the way I wanted.
Instead I found a way to simulate the effect I wanted. I defined weights for each pair of cities as a function of the Euclidean distance between them and the number of friends between them. Then I plotted lines between the pairs by weight, so that pairs of cities with the most friendships between them were drawn on top of the others. I used a color ramp from black to blue to white, with each line’s color depending on its weight. I also transformed some of the lines to wrap around the image, rather than spanning more than halfway around the world.
After a few minutes of rendering, the new plot appeared, and I was a bit taken aback by what I saw. The blob had turned into a surprisingly detailed map of the world. Not only were continents visible, certain international borders were apparent as well. What really struck me, though, was knowing that the lines didn’t represent coasts or rivers or political borders, but real human relationships. Each line might represent a friendship made while travelling, a family member abroad, or an old college friend pulled away by the various forces of life.
Later I replaced the lines with great circle arcs, which are the shortest routes between two points on the Earth. Because the Earth is a sphere, these are often not straight lines on the projection.
When I shared the image with others within Facebook, it resonated with many people. It’s not just a pretty picture, it’s a reaffirmation of the impact we have in connecting people, even across oceans and borders’.
Paul is an intern on Facebook’s data infrastructure engineering team.
For connecting more than half a billion people and mapping the social relations among them; for creating a new system of exchanging information; and for changing how we all live our lives, Mark Elliot Zuckerberg is TIME’s 2010 Person of the Year
¿Cuándo morirán los diarios impresos?
Gráfico de Futureexploration.
Ross Dawson, futurista.
Ross Dawson is globally recognized as a leading futurist, entrepreneur, keynote speaker, strategy advisor, and bestselling author. He is Founding Chairman of four companies: professional services and venture firm Advanced Human Technologies, future and strategy consulting group Future Exploration Network, leading events firm The Insight Exchange, and influence ratings start-up Repyoot.
Ross is author most recently of Implementing Enterprise 2.0, the prescient Living Networks, which anticipated the social network revolution, and the Amazon.com bestseller Developing Knowledge-Based Client Relationships (click on the links for free chapter downloads). He is based in Sydney and San Francisco with his wife jewellery designer Victoria Buckley and two beautiful young daughters.
Below are the factors:
FACTORS DRIVING THE PACE OF NEWSPAPER EXTINCTION
Increased cost performance of mobile phones
Increased cost performance of tablets/ e-readers
Development of high performance digital paper
Changes in newsprint and print production costs
Uptake of digital news monetization mechanisms
Trends in advertising spend and allocation
Development of open platforms
Fixed bandwidth availability and costs
Mobile bandwidth availability and costs
Smartphone and e-reader penetration
Economic growth rate
Urban/ regional wealth disparity
Financial position of leading newspapers
Balance of advertising and print sales revenue
Newspaper distribution structures
Age structure, birth rates, and immigration
Degree of urbanization
Increase in literacy
Degree of regulation
Government financial support for media
Censorship and obstruction
Media channel preferences
Willingness to pay for news
Relative interest in local and global news
The Global Coalition Against Corruption
Corruption Index 2010
‘Corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. It hurts everyone whose life, livelihood or happiness depends on the integrity of people in a position of authority’.
Escala de la corrupción.
The 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index shows that nearly three quarters of the 178 countries in the index score below five, on a scale from 10 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt). These results indicate a serious corruption problem.
Pasos para el cálculo del IPC:
1. El primer paso para calcular el IPC consiste en estandarizar los datos
proporcionados por las fuentes individuales (es decir, traducirlos a una escala
común). Para ello, utilizamos lo que se denomina técnica de matching de
percentiles, que toma en cuenta las clasificaciones de países proporcionadas por
cada fuente individual. Esta técnica resulta útil para combinar fuentes con
diferentes distribuciones. Si bien al emplearla se pierden algunos datos,
garantiza que todas las puntuaciones permanezcan dentro de los límites del IPC,
es decir, entre 0 y 10.
2. El segundo paso consiste en someter las puntuaciones estandarizadas a una
transformación beta. Esto aumenta la desviación estándar entre todos los países
incluidos en el IPC y permite distinguir de manera más precisa a los países que
aparentemente presentan puntuaciones similares.
3. Por último, para determinar las puntuaciones del IPC se promedian todos los
valores estandarizados de cada país.
España se encuentra en el puesto 30.
En Europa, ocuparía el puesto 18.
Transparency International Secretariat
Tel. +49-30-3438 20-0
Fax +49-30-3470 3912
Liaison Office to the EU (AISBL)
Rue Breydel 40
B-1040 Brussels, Belgium
Phone: +32 (0)2 23 58 621
Huguette Labelle holds a Doctor of Philosophy, Education. She is a Companion of the Order of Canada. She has been awarded honorary degrees from twelve Canadian Universities and has received the Vanier medal of the Institute of Public Administration of Canada, the Outstanding Achievement Award of the public service of Canada, the McGill Management Achievement Award and l’ordre de la Pleiade.
Akere T. Muna is founder and former president of Transparency International Cameroon. A lawyer by training, he is President of the Pan African Lawyers Union and former president of the Cameroon Bar Association. In October 2008, Akere Muna was elected President of the African Union’s Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC). Mr Muna is a member of several national commissions on legal reform and curbing corruption. In January 2010 he was elected as one of the 4 new members to the Panel of Eminent Persons (APR panel). He is also member of the International Anti-Corruption Council. Mr Muna is still in active Legal Practice as the Managing Partner of Muna, Muna and Associates, one of oldest law firms in Cameroon.