UNITS: Kilogramo

Redefinición del kilogramo.
Las masa de un decímetro de agua destilada(un litro) en la densidad máxima del agua, una atmósfera de presión y 3,98 °C (1785)
El kilogramo fue redefinido mediante un objeto
Unidad de masa centenaria (definición actual de 1901).
Origen en las reformas de la revolución francesa.
Nueva definición del concepto de masa.
Basada en las propiedades que no cambian en la naturaleza en vez de un elemento físico.
Fuerza, velocidad, voltaje y resistencia.
Constante de Planck.

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Prototipo de kilogramo internacional.
Cilindro de platinium-iridium
Desde 1880
En Sèvres, Francia.
Sistema internacional (SI).
El «prototipo internacional» es la única medida oficial de masa. Varios proyectos intentan acabar con este pedazo de metal, y sustituirlo por una definición absoluta.

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U.S. National Prototype Kilogram.
90% platinum
10% iridium.
Desde 2008

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Proyecto australiano.
CSIRO
Propuesta esférica de silicona.
Diámetro de 93 mm.

GRAPHIC GEMS: Atlas zu Alex. v. Humboldt’s Kosmos in zweiundvierzig, 1851

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Atlas zu Alex. v. Humboldt’s Kosmos in zweiundvierzig
Infographic on the composition of the earth’s crust
Stuttgart, Alemania
Verlag von Krais & Hoffmann
1851
42 infografías para la historia.
No sólo un atlas. No sólo mapas.
Incluyen increíbles ilustraciones para explicar los fenómenos naturales.

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Ver Botanicus

MAS:
Galería en Flickr

Bibliodyssey

The rise of thematic or special purpose cartography, which focuses on mapping the distribution of single or multiple interrelated phenomena, had its origins in the advances in the natural sciences in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, particularly with the collection of vast amounts of scientific data and the search for innovative techniques of presenting this data graphically. Examples of early physical geography atlases in the Library of Congress include Alexander von Humboldt’s Atlas gographique et physique du royaume de la Nouvelle-Espagne (Paris, 1811), which records his observations during a 1799 to 1804 expedition to South and Central America; Heinrich Berghaus’s three-volume Physikalischer Atlas (Gotha, 1845 1848), the first atlas to portray the physical geography of the world; Alexander Keith Johnston’s Physical Atlas (Edinburgh, 1848), an English adaptation of the Berghaus atlas; and Traugott Broome’s Atlas zu Alex. v. Humboldt’s Kosmos [Stuttgart, 1851 1853], which was prepared to accompany Humboldt’s five-volume Kosmos, a complete physical geography of the universe.

MAPS: GlobCover, ESA

El nuevo mapa de la Agencia Espacial Europea.

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21 December 2010
ESA’s 2009 global land cover map has been released and is now available to the public online from the ‘GlobCover’ website. GlobCover 2009 proves the sharpest possible global land cover map can be created within a year.

The map was produced using 12 months of data from Envisat’s Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at a resolution of 300 m.
ESA and Belgium’s Université catholique de Louvain created the map using software developed by Medias France and Germany’s Brockmann Consult on data collected from 1 January to 31 December 2009. GlobCover 2009 was generated within a year of acquiring the final satellite data.

The map’s legend uses the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation’s Land Cover Classification System.

Some 8000 people have downloaded the previous version, GlobCover 2005. These maps are useful for studying the effects of climate change, conserving biodiversity and managing natural resources.

Credits: ESA 2010 and Université Catholique de Louvain

MAP GEMS: Familia Ottens, Joachim, Reiner y Joshua

JOACHIM OTTENS (Padre) 1663-1719
REINER AND JOSUA OTTENS (hijos)
(1698-1750 and 1704-1765)
Cartógrafos

The family business of print and map selling was founded by Joachim Ottens but the active period of map publishing was concentrated in the years between 1720 and 1750 when the brothers, Reiner and Joshua, produced enormous collections of maps, some as large as 15 volumes. These, including copies of practically all maps available at the time, were made up to order and were magnificently coloured. Besides these specially prepared collections they also issued single-volume atlases with varying contents as well as pocket atlases.

Cartografía en venta.

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Publisher: de L’ISLE, G. / OTTENS, R. / I.
Title: Hemisphere meridional pour voir plus distinctement les terres australes. . .
Published in: Amsterdam, 1740

Size: 17.6 x 17.9 inches.
44.7 x 45.4 cm.

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With the imprint of the Ottens family – rare. An Antarctic map including a recounting of the discovery of an island south of the Cape of Good Hope which was named Cap de la Circoncision in 1739. A small inset map of the discovered island appears in the lower right.
This circular map show the world in an unusual way: using the Poles as the center point of hemispheres that extend to the Equator.
With a text panel in upper left corner : Nouvelles découvertes de 1739 au sud du cap de bonne Esperance par les ordre de M. de la compagnie des Indes. Dressee sur les memoires et sur la carte originale de M. Lozier Bouvet cahrge de cette expédition. Same text in Dutch in upper right corner.
Joachim Ottens (1663 – 1719) and his sons Renier and Joshua were prominent Dutch booksellers and map publishers from about 1680 to 1790. Joachim, the founder of the firm, was initially employed as a copperplate engraver by Frederick de Wit. In 1711 Joachim founded his own firm. Though Joachim died only a few years later, his sons Renier and Joshua took over the firm and presided over its most prolific period.

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European Distance Chart, Reiner and Josua Ottens, c.1750
OLIOMETRIA EUROPAE MAXIME AUTEM GERMANIAE AC FINITIMORUM LOCURUM EX OFFICINA R. & J. OTTS AMST. An interesting table listing many European towns and cities plus Bethlehem.

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Publisher: OTTENS, R. / I.
Title: Poliometria Europae Maxime Autem Germaniae ac Finitimorum Locorum. . .
Published in: Amsterdam, 1720
48.6 x 55.3 cm.

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This unusual thematic chart shows the traveling distances from various European cities in a style that is still used in charts today.

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Reiner & Josua Ottens: Carte Quirepresente Toutes Les Pieces Qui Sont Comprises Dans L’Architecture Militaire, ou L’Arte Des Fortifications . . .

Description: Scarce map showing approximately 83 smaller illustrations on all aspects of the military sciences, including methods for the construction of fortresses; artillery; sieges of cities; battles; army units, attacks from seaside etc., but Caspar Specht. The text of the legend in Dutch, text in the illustrations in French. Gorgeous old color example.

Title: Carte Quirepresente Toutes Les Pieces Qui Sont Comprises Dans L’Architecture Militaire, ou L’Arte Des Fortifications . . .
Map Maker: Reiner & Josua Ottens
Place / Date: Amsterdam / 1720

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Reiner & Josua Ottens: [Wall Map of Spain & Portugal] Novissima et Accuratissima Tabula Qua Gallaeciae et Legionis Regna, Asturiarum … Regnorum Arragoniae et Navarra, Principatus Cataloniae . . .

Title: [Wall Map of Spain & Portugal] Novissima et Accuratissima Tabula Qua Gallaeciae et Legionis Regna, Asturiarum … Regnorum Arragoniae et Navarra, Principatus Cataloniae . . .

Map Maker: Reiner & Josua Ottens
Place / Date: Amsterdam / 1740

Description:

Gorgeous full color example of Luggert van Anse’s 4 sheet map of Spain, Portugal and the Balaeric Islands, joined flawlessly and presented here as a wall map.

Includes a large cartouche with explanations of the political divisions of Spain and Portugal in French and Dutch, headed by coat of arms and 6 compass roses. An uncommon wall map of Spain and Portugal. Luggert van Anse was engraver for Allard, Visscher and van Keulen. This edition was published by Ottens, with additions and corrections. A spectacular example.
Price: $4,800.00

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Johannes De Ram / Reiner & Josua Ottens: Regni Angliae Nova Tabula, Exhibens Principatum Walliae, & aliarum Provincia rum Civitatum, Oppidorum, una cum itineribus ab uno in aliam Civitatem

Title: Regni Angliae Nova Tabula, Exhibens Principatum Walliae, & aliarum Provincia rum Civitatum, Oppidorum, una cum itineribus ab uno in aliam Civitatem

Map Maker: Johannes De Ram / Reiner & Josua Ottens
Place / Date: Amsterdam / 1725
Size: 23 x 19.5 inches
Price: $795.00

Description:
Third state of De Ram’s rare map of England, updated and corrected by Reiner & Josua Ottens.

Includes a massive Alphabetical Table of the Cities and Market-Townes on the great roads in England Y Wales, Their Latitude and Longitude and in what County they are Lying . . . Ornate cartouche and rich full color.

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Totius Neobelgii nova et accuratissima Tabula
Allard, Hugo (1625 – 1691)/Ottens, Reiner (1698 – 1750) and Ottens, Joshua (1704-1765)
Librería: W. Graham Arader III gallery (New York, NY, U.S.A.)


Descripción:

A MAP OF NEW ENGLAND CONTAINING THE FAMOUS «RESTITUTIO» VIEW Copper-plate engraving with original hand color: plate size 181/2″ x 213/4″ Reference: Philip D. Burden, The Mapping of North America: A List of Printed Maps 1511-1670 (Rickmansworth, 1996), 476-477. This map is one of five that closely follows the Visscher Novii Belgii. It is a magnificent version of Hugo Allard’s edition published by the Ottens brothers, after their purchase of Allard’s plate in 1708, and shows the famous «Restitutio» view of New York. In 1664, the English successfully captured New Amsterdam and renamed it New York. The Dutch were entirely unable to rival the English, but for one brief episode between 1673 and 1674 when they recaptured the city and renamed it New Amsterdam. It was then that this updated version of Visscher’s map was first engraved replacing the inset view of New York with what became dubbed the «Restituto» view. The inset celebrated the ‘restoration’ of New Amsterdam to Holland, in August 1673, by the fleet under the command of Cornelius Evertsen. The figure on the pedestal is holding a laurel of victory, while the updated glimpse at the southern tip of Manhattan shows a city that has grown significantly, and is a triumphant indication of Dutch pride in its recapture. Unlike the Visscher view, here the town is depicted from the east. On the right-hand side of the view is part of the wall that became Wall Street, with its guardhouse and gate. To its right are new settlements that were just beginning to crop up north of the wall. This view actually shows the Dutch capture of the town in progress, with soldiers marching along the quay and a cannon firing from the fort. Despite the fact that the city was returned to the British under the Treaty of Breda the following year, this map with the «Restitutio» view continued to be published for almost a century by Dutch mapmakers, perhaps for reasons of nostalgic national pride. By this time, Dutch overseas power was waning, particularly in America. This view, with its grandiose presentation of momentary triumph, played to the need for some affirmation of Dutch colonial power even in the face of overwhelming evidence to its demise

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Schenk Ottens 1700 (1735) – India

MAKER Schenk/Ottens
TITLE Carte des Côtes de Malabar et de Coromandel
PLACE ISSUED Amsterdam
FIRST EDITION 1700
THIS EDITION 1735
SIZE (hxw cms) 44.1 x 57.2
AREA SHOWN India
TECHNIQUE Copper engraving
PAGE NUMBER
SIGNATURE
VERSO blank
COLOURING or.col.
CONDITION The overall quality of this antique map is excellent
DESCRIPTION Reiner and Joshua Ottens’ re-issue of Schenk’s large map of India. Magnificent original colour.

JOACHIM OTTENS
1663-1719
Joachim Ottens and his sons Renier (d.1750) and Joshua (d.1765), were prominent Dutch booksellers and map publishers from about 1680 to 1790. Joachim was initially employed as a copperplate engraver by Frederick de Wit (1630-1706), but founded his own business in 1711. Although he died only a few years later, his sons Renier and Joshua took over the firm and presided over its most prolific period. The Ottens family’s most notable contribution to cartography was its enormous made-to-order multi-volume atlases such as the Atlas Major.

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Reiner Ottens. Atlas maior cvm generales omnivm totius orbis regnorvm . . .Amsterdam 1729. Page 2 – Page 3 Hand-colored engraving

REINER OTTENS
(son) 1698-1750

JOSHUA OTTENS
(son) 1704-1765