MAPS: Cráteres de la luna, NASA

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Mapa topográfico de la luna.
Cuando era joven, fue bombardeada por dos poblaciones distintas de asteroides.

Fuente: NASA.

Figure 5: A lunar topographic map showing the Moon from the vantage point of the eastern limb. In this view, the yellow circles represent some of the 5185 craters equal to or greater than 20 km found on the Moon and counted in this study. On the left side of the Moon seen in this view is part of the familiar part of the Moon observed from Earth (the eastern part of the nearside). In the middle left-most part of the globe is Mare Tranquillitatis (light blue) the site of the Apollo 11 landing, and above this an oval-appearing region (Mare Serenitatis; dark blue) the site of the Apollo 17 landing. Most of the dark blue areas are lunar maria, low lying regions composed of volcanic lava flows that formed after the heavily cratered lunar highlands (and are thus much less cratered). The topography is derived from over 2.4 billion shots made by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on board the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The large near-circular basins (large yellow circles) show the effects of the early impacts on early planetary crusts in the inner solar system, including the Earth. Credit: NASA/Goddard/MIT/Brown

MAPS: Mancha polémica

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Icelandair GROUP acaba de publicar una nueva web con información sobre el volcán.
Este es el mapa que da hoy sobre la mancha contaminante en Islandia (mini mancha).

Este son los mapas de las previsiones de la mancha de ceniza que METOFFICE ha publicado todos estos días.
La fuente es la Oficina Meteorológica de Islandia.
No se ha dado información precisa de cómo se han elaborado estos mapas.
No hemos visto fotografías detalladas de satélite (difíciles de ver por las borrascas y las nubes, pero el problema requería algo más científico que estos mapas)
No hemos visto estudios precisos sobre el impacto de las cenizas en los motores.
Tampoco hemos visto los resultados de las pruebas que las compañías hicieron en los motores.

Ayer, CIVIL AVIATION Authority del Reino Unido publicó unas nuevas líneas maestras sobre el uso del espacio aéreo.
Hoy por la tarde se esperan los primeros vuelos desde Heathrow.

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14 de abril

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16 de abril

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17 de abril
Caos total

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18 de abril

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19 de abril

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20 de abril

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21 de abril
Fin del problema.

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Morgunbladid, Islandia
Los ganaderos del sur de Islandia son los que más motivos tienen para preocuparse.
Animales bajo techo, agua potable y comida sana.
Se esperan fuertes lluvias que limpien el aire y el suelo. Esperan un cosechón. Las cenizas son un excelente abono.

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Neue Westfälische, Alemania
Las finanzas del sector aéreo en el suelo.
Los ejecutivos piden ayudas al gobierno.

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Frankfurter Allgemeine, Alemania
La nube.

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Daily Express, UK
Finalmente, los cielos abiertos.

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The Daily Telegraph, UK
¿Por qué se impuso la restricción?
Glups, Nick Clegg puede freir en cenizas esta noche a Brown.

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Südwest Presse, Alemania
Las líneas aéreas desafían las restricciones

Esto, ¿no era de antes de ayer?

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Rheinische Post, Alemania
Estudio sobre las cenizas
La ceniza: tan dura como el acero.

Sí, pero se las llevó el viento.

PHOTO GEMS: 1946, primera foto desde el espacio

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PRIMERA FOTOGRAFÍA desde el espacio.
24 de octubre de 1946

On October 24, 1946, not long after the end of World War II and years before the Sputnik satellite opened the space age, a group of soldiers and scientists in the New Mexico desert saw something new and wonderful—the first pictures of Earth as seen from space.
The grainy, black-and-white photos were taken from an altitude of 65 miles by a 35-millimeter motion picture camera riding on a V-2 missile launched from the White Sands Missile Range. Snapping a new frame every second and a half, the rocket-borne camera climbed straight up, then fell back to Earth minutes later, slamming into the ground at 500 feet per second. The camera itself was smashed, but the film, protected in a steel cassette, was unharme.

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Esquema de lo que se ve.

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V-2

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Vista de 1947, V-2

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Composición, julio de 1948

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TIROS-1, 50 años (NASA)
1 de abril de 1960

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La primera imagen desde Tiros, 1960

GRAPHICS: NASA, Golden Record, Voyager

La NASA ha dado a conocer hoy en su página digital las placas de las sondas Voyager.

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Imagen del pequeño metal que portaban las cápsulas Voyager 1 y 2 y que contiene un mensaje que, en principio, deberían entender los extraterrestres si las encontrasen perdidas por el espacio.

El mensaje se encuentra en un disco reproducible de oro con sonidos e imágenes de nuestra cultura (animales, música, lenguas, un mensaje de Carter y de otro de la ONU).
Sobre la placa, están incrustadas las instrucciones para hacerlo sonar (ver imagen superior).

Pioneer 10 y 11, precedentes de las misiones Voyager, también portaban una placa de metal con información sobre los humanos.

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Pioneers 10 and 11, which preceded Voyager, both carried small metal plaques identifying their time and place of origin for the benefit of any other spacefarers that might find them in the distant future. With this example before them, NASA placed a more ambitious message aboard Voyager 1 and 2-a kind of time capsule, intended to communicate a story of our world to extraterrestrials. The Voyager message is carried by a phonograph record-a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk containing sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth. The contents of the record were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University, et. al. Dr. Sagan and his associates assembled 115 images and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind and thunder, birds, whales, and other animals. To this they added musical selections from different cultures and eras, and spoken greetings from Earth-people in fifty-five languages, and printed messages from President Carter and U.N. Secretary General Waldheim. Each record is encased in a protective aluminum jacket, together with a cartridge and a needle. Instructions, in symbolic language, explain the origin of the spacecraft and indicate how the record is to be played. The 115 images are encoded in analog form. The remainder of the record is in audio, designed to be played at 16-2/3 revolutions per minute. It contains the spoken greetings, beginning with Akkadian, which was spoken in Sumer about six thousand years ago, and ending with Wu, a modern Chinese dialect. Following the section on the sounds of Earth, there is an eclectic 90-minute selection of music, including both Eastern and Western classics and a variety of ethnic music. Once the Voyager spacecraft leave the solar system (by 1990, both will be beyond the orbit of Pluto), they will find themselves in empty space. It will be forty thousand years before they make a close approach to any other planetary system. As Carl Sagan has noted, «The spacecraft will be encountered and the record played only if there are advanced spacefaring civilizations in interstellar space. But the launching of this bottle into the cosmic ocean says something very hopeful about life on this planet.»

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Diagrama explicativo.

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«In the upper left-hand corner is an easily recognized drawing of the phonograph record and the stylus carried with it. The stylus is in the correct position to play the record from the beginning. Written around it in binary arithmetic is the correct time of one rotation of the record, 3.6 seconds, expressed in time units of 0,70 billionths of a second, the time period associated with a fundamental transition of the hydrogen atom. The drawing indicates that the record should be played from the outside in. Below this drawing is a side view of the record and stylus, with a binary number giving the time to play one side of the record – about an hour.
«The information in the upper right-hand portion of the cover is designed to show how pictures are to be constructed from the recorded signals. The top drawing shows the typical signal that occurs at the start of a picture. The picture is made from this signal, which traces the picture as a series of vertical lines, similar to
ordinary television (in which the picture is a series of horizontal lines). Picture lines 1, 2 and 3 are noted in binary numbers, and the duration of one of the «picture lines,» about 8 milliseconds, is noted. The drawing immediately below shows how these lines are to be drawn vertically, with staggered «interlace» to give the correct picture rendition. Immediately below this is a drawing of an entire picture raster, showing that there are 512 vertical lines in a complete picture. Immediately below this is a replica of the first picture on the record to permit the recipients to verify that they are decoding the signals correctly. A circle was used in this picture to insure that the recipients use the correct ratio of horizontal to vertical height in picture reconstruction.
«The drawing in the lower left-hand corner of the cover is the pulsar map previously sent as part of the plaques on Pioneers 10 and 11. It shows the location of the solar system with respect to 14 pulsars, whose precise periods are given. The drawing containing two circles in the lower right-hand corner is a drawing of the hydrogen atom in its two lowest states, with a connecting line and digit 1 to indicate that the time interval associated with the transition from one state to the other is to be used as the fundamental time scale, both for
the time given on the cover and in the decoded pictures.
«Electroplated onto the record’s cover is an ultra-pure source of uranium-238 with a radioactivity of about 0.00026 microcuries. The steady decay of the uranium source into its daughter isotopes makes it a kind of radioactive clock. Half of the uranium-238 will decay in 4.51 billion years. Thus, by examining this two-centimeter diameter area on the record plate and measuring the amount of daughter elements to the remaining uranium-238, an extraterrestrial recipient of the Voyager spacecraft could calculate the time elapsed since a spot of uranium was placed aboard the spacecraft. This should be a check on the epoch of launch, which is also described by the pulsar map on the record cover.»

PHOTO: Haití, terremoto y puerto, NASA

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Haiti: 7.0 Quake Near Port Au Prince (as of 21 Jan 2010)

Imágenes NASA terremto

The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA’s Terra spacecraft captured this false color image of Haiti, on January 21, 2010, nine days after a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck the region and caused massive damage and loss of life, and one day after a large 5.9 aftershock caused additional damage. While ASTER’s 15-meter (50-foot) resolution is not sufficient to see damaged buildings, it can be used to identify other results of the shaking. Tiny dots of white against the plant-covered landscape (red in this image) are possible landslides, a common occurrence in mountainous terrain after large earthquakes. The possible landslides were identified by carefully comparing the new image with an image acquired one year previously.

Port-au-Prince, Haiti’s capital, is silver in the false color image. The rivers are pale blue, while the ocean is dark blue. Exposed soil is white.

NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team. Caption adapted from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Photojournal.

Instrument:

Terra – ASTER

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Los barcos en Puerto Príncipe

Imágenes NASA terremto

Ships carrying relief supplies and aid stream into Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in this image taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite on January 21, 2010. The city’s port was badly damaged in the massive 7.0 earthquake that hit the island on January 12. On January 20, one pier re-opened, allowing ships to dock for the first time since the earthquake, said news reports.

The newly reopened pier is the city’s south pier, the narrow strip that juts out into the water in this image. Part of the pier collapsed in the earthquake, but the remaining structure is just stable enough to support a single truck offloading supplies from docked ships, reported CNN.

Tiny streaks of white in the dark blue water are ships. The largest ship in the scene may be the USNS Comfort, a 273-meter (894-foot) long U.S. Navy hospital ship that was taking patients by helicopter until a pier could open up, according to Business Week.

Though its capacity is limited, the fragile pier should speed the distribution of food and other supplies to earthquake victims. Prior to January 20, aid had been coming into Port-au-Prince on airplanes arriving on a single runway, said news reports. The ships have a much greater capacity.

Port-au-Prince itself is blue gray in this false color image. At this scale, the only visible earthquake damage is the shortened pier, but the image does reveal how densely constructed the city was. Plant-covered land is red. Little open, plant-covered ground can be seen in the heart of the city.

1. References

2. CNN. (2010, January 21). Haiti pier opens, road laid into Port-au-Prince. Accessed January 21, 2010.

3. Dolmetsch, C, and Varner, B. (2010, January 21). U.S.-rescued Haitian Victims Treated on Hospital Ship. Business Week. Accessed January 21, 2010.

4. Leonard, T. (2010, January 20). Haiti earthquake: damaged port reopens to aid ships. Telegraph. Accessed January 21, 2010.

5. Military Seacraft Command. USNS Comfort. Accessed January 21, 2010.

NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team. Caption by Holli Riebeek.

Instrument:

Terra – ASTER