INDEX: ATCO-hour, productividad y control aéreo

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PRR 2009
Performance Review Report
An Assessment of Air Traffic Management in Europe
during the Calendar Year 2009
European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation
EUROCONTROL, 96, rue de la Fusée, B-1130 Brussels, Belgium

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Cuadro de los términos internacionales para expresar la productividad de los controladores aéreos.

ACC (Area Control Center) Responsible for the safe flow of traffic along airways (–> En-route) and in certain portions of terminal control areas (–> APP). Significant horizontal and vertical growth in the areas to be controlled requires subdivision into various sectors of activity, either geographically or according to altitude, depending on traffic density.

Air Traffic Controller (ATCO) Manages and monitors, from the airport of take-off to that of landing, all of the aircraft present in the portion of airspace for which he or she is responsible. Skyguide employs about 450 civil ATCOs and 90 military ATCOs. The profession of ATCO is open to both men and women.

‘Sector productivity: This is the ratio of the output, measured by the flight-hours controlled by the ACC, to (area control) sector-hours open. This indicator shows, on
average, how many aircraft are simultaneously in a sector for a given ACC. All else being equal, higher sector productivity will improve ATCO-hour productivity.

 Staffing per sector: This is the ratio of ATCO-hours on duty to sector-hours open. This indicator shows, on average, how many ATCOs are used to man a sector. All else being equal, a reduction in the staffing per sector will increase ATCO-hour productivity.

ATCO-hour productivity can be more easily compared in an international benchmarking
environment. The average number of hours on duty is not a performance indicator per se and is mostly determined by the social bargaining and regulatory framework that prevails in each ANSP and State. Moreover, average hours on duty should be seen in the context of the employment costs’.

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El coste del empleo por hora de control (ATCO).
El último dato es de 2008.
AENA tendría el coste más alto de Europa.
191 euros por hora de control.
La media es 99 euros.

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Productividad = nº compuesto de horas de vuelo controladas / nº de horas de ATCOs in OPS (Composite flight-hours per ATCO-hour)

El índice que mide la productividad del control aéreo (ATCO-hour productivity)
AENA, bajo, según EUROCONTROL.

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Coste del empleo por hora de vuelo.
AENA: 354 euros
Media: 127 euros

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Relación de la productividad con el coste del empleo.

‘In terms of the cost base, Aena is the largest European ANSP,
with costs amounting to around 16% of the European total (for
a traffic representing 10% of the European total).
Over five years, its traffic has grown by +4% a year, but has
slightly declined in 2008. Over the period Aena experienced
the highest traffic growth among the five largest ANSPs
(+17%). Overall, the complexity of its traffic is intermediate.
Among the other four large ANSPs, Aena’s traffic shows
significantly less complexity’.

ATM Cost-Effectiveness (ACE)
2008 Benchmarking Report
Prepared by the Performance Review Unit (PRU)
with the ACEWorking Group
Junio de 2010

La Asociación Profesional de Controladores de Tránsito Aéreo no está de acuerdo con los datos de EUROCONTROL:

– ‘En primer lugar es importante destacar que estos estudios de Eurocontrol comparan proveedores de servicios de navegación aérea que en absoluto son homogéneos.
– Aena no ha seguido fielmente las directrices de EUROCONTROL (Performance Review Comission, PRC) en cuanto a la información facilitada para la elaboración de los informes comparativos, información que por otro lado no es objeto de auditoría alguna’.

Informe de APROCTA: las mentiras sobre los controladores.

STATS: The Global Gender Gap Report

The Global Gender Gap Report
Ricardo Hausmann, Harvard University
Laura D. Tyson, University of California, Berkeley
Saadia Zahidi,World Economic Forum

Mide las diferencias entre hombres y mujeres para el acceso a la política, economía, salud, trabajo…

The Index is designed to measure gender-based gaps in
access to resources and opportunities in individual countries
rather than the actual levels of the available resources
and opportunities in those countries.

Convert to ratios
First, all data are converted to female/male ratios. For
example, a country with 20% of women in ministerial
positions is assigned a ratio of 20 women /80 men =
0.25 on this variable. This is to ensure that the Index is
capturing gaps between women’s and men’s attainment
levels, rather than the levels themselves.

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Desde 2006
España, en el puesto 11.

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The result puts Switzerland alongside Finland,
Norway, Spain and Cape Verde as countries identified by
the Inter-Parliamentary Union as having a majority of
women in government.

Spain moves up six places in the overall report rankings,
improving its scores across all subindexes to regain
the same overall position it held in 2006. It records some
small gains in the category of women’s economic participation
and opportunity (increases in female labour force
participation, wage equality and estimated earned income,
as well as in the numbers of female professional and technical
workers). Spain’s strengths include the number of
women in ministerial positions, an area where Spain is
among the countries with the highest percentage out of
the 134 countries covered.

However, Spain still ranks towards the very bottom on wage equality, assuming 117th
position. Improvements to Spain’s performance in terms of
women’s economic participation may be expected in the
future following the recent introduction of a law that obligates
all companies with more than 250 employees to create
gender equality plans and the largest companies to
have 40-percent female boards of directors by 2015. The
new law also grants 15 days’ paternity leave to new
fathers. In addition, women must take up at least 40 percent
of the lists of candidates that parties field in elections,
under the new law.

Switzerland, Belgium, Spain, Finland
and Ireland show the largest absolute increases in score,
amounting to relative changes of more than 14% when
compared to their performance in the year 2000.

The Global Gender Gap Report 2010 is
published by the World Economic Forum. The
Global Gender Gap Index 2010 is the result of
collaboration with faculty at Harvard University
and the University of California, Berkeley

© 2010 World Economic Forum
All rights reserved.

GRAPHICS: Nivel de corrupción, Transparency International

Transparency International

The Global Coalition Against Corruption
Corruption Index 2010

‘Corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. It hurts everyone whose life, livelihood or happiness depends on the integrity of people in a position of authority’.

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Mapa interactivo

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Escala de la corrupción.
The 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index shows that nearly three quarters of the 178 countries in the index score below five, on a scale from 10 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt). These results indicate a serious corruption problem.

Pasos para el cálculo del IPC:
1. El primer paso para calcular el IPC consiste en estandarizar los datos
proporcionados por las fuentes individuales (es decir, traducirlos a una escala
común). Para ello, utilizamos lo que se denomina técnica de matching de
percentiles, que toma en cuenta las clasificaciones de países proporcionadas por
cada fuente individual. Esta técnica resulta útil para combinar fuentes con
diferentes distribuciones. Si bien al emplearla se pierden algunos datos,
garantiza que todas las puntuaciones permanezcan dentro de los límites del IPC,
es decir, entre 0 y 10.

2. El segundo paso consiste en someter las puntuaciones estandarizadas a una
transformación beta. Esto aumenta la desviación estándar entre todos los países
incluidos en el IPC y permite distinguir de manera más precisa a los países que
aparentemente presentan puntuaciones similares.

3. Por último, para determinar las puntuaciones del IPC se promedian todos los
valores estandarizados de cada país.

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Visualización general.
España se encuentra en el puesto 30.
En Europa, ocuparía el puesto 18.

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Transparency International Secretariat
Alt-Moabit 96
10559 Berlin
Tel. +49-30-3438 20-0
Fax +49-30-3470 3912

Liaison Office to the EU (AISBL)
Rue Breydel 40
B-1040 Brussels, Belgium

Phone: +32 (0)2 23 58 621

Huguette Labelle holds a Doctor of Philosophy, Education. She is a Companion of the Order of Canada. She has been awarded honorary degrees from twelve Canadian Universities and has received the Vanier medal of the Institute of Public Administration of Canada, the Outstanding Achievement Award of the public service of Canada, the McGill Management Achievement Award and l’ordre de la Pleiade.

Akere T. Muna is founder and former president of Transparency International Cameroon. A lawyer by training, he is President of the Pan African Lawyers Union and former president of the Cameroon Bar Association. In October 2008, Akere Muna was elected President of the African Union’s Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC). Mr Muna is a member of several national commissions on legal reform and curbing corruption. In January 2010 he was elected as one of the 4 new members to the Panel of Eminent Persons (APR panel). He is also member of the International Anti-Corruption Council. Mr Muna is still in active Legal Practice as the Managing Partner of Muna, Muna and Associates, one of oldest law firms in Cameroon.

WWW: ‘Deep Web’

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’Deep Web’ o ‘Deepnet’ (Red Profunda) son los contenidos de la red que nunca aparecen en los buscadores al no estar indexados. Google no los lee. Se estima que está parte oscurecida de la red puede ser mayor que la que se ve.

Por ejemplo, queda un mundo para que los buscadores realicen consultas óptimas de imágenes, vídeos y otros soportes. El público introduce en sus páginas digitales imágenes sin marcarlas con palabras clave o con nombres extraños. Así no hay manera de encontrar nada. Un mundo virgen por explorar.

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