GRAPHICS: Informe PISA 2009


Informe PISA

Cada tres años.

Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 Results:
What Students Know and Can Do Student Performance in Reading,Mathematics and Science.
OCDE

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Las clasificaciones en lectura, matemáticas y ciencias.

Methods
• Around 470 000 students completed the assessment in 2009, representing about 26 million 15-year-olds in
the schools of the 65 participating countries and economies. Some 50 000 students took part in a second
round of this assessment in 2010, representing about 2 million 15 year-olds from 9 additional partner
countries and economies.
• Each participating student spent two hours carrying out pencil-and-paper tasks in reading, mathematics and
science. In 20 countries, students were given additional questions via computer to assess their capacity to
read digital texts.
• The assessment included tasks requiring students to construct their own answers as well as multiple-choice
questions. The latter were typically organised in units based on a written passage or graphic, much like the
kind of texts or figures that students might encounter in real life.
• Students also answered a questionnaire that took about 30 minutes to complete. This questionnaire focused
on their personal background, their learning habits, their attitudes towards reading, and their engagement
and motivation.
• School principals completed a questionnaire about their school that included demographic characteristics
and an assessment of the quality of the learning environment at school.

Corrigenda to OECD publications may be found on line at: www.oecd.org/publishing/corrigenda.
PISATM, OECD/PISATM and the PISA logo are trademaks of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
All use of OECD trademarks is prohibited without written permission from the OECD.
© OECD 2010

Angel Gurría
OECD Secretary-General

GRAPHICS: eXplorer Statistics, NCVA, Suecia

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eXplorer Statistics
National Center for Visual Analytics (NCVA)
Suecia
Programación y análisis de la estadística.
«GeoAnalytics Visualization»
Introducción.

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Usuarios:
The WorlBank
The Economist
The BBC
Eurostat
OCDE
Statistic Denmark
City of Göteborg
Ericsson
Unilever

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National Center for Visual Analytics (NCVA) is a Swedish national resource funded through the Swedish Knowledge Foundation’s (KK-Stiftelsen) Visualization Program including VINNOVA, SSF, ISA and Vårdalstiftelsen and our industrial and government research partners. NCVA will help to spread geovisual and visual analytics technology into industry and government agencies.
NCVA is managed by Professor Mikael Jern VITA/ITN

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Strategies
Programming each new Visual Analytics application from scratch is a complex and expensive task and a very inefficient way to work. A high-level toolkit, comprising many well-tested and compatible components, will make this process far less time-consuming and help ensure the correct functioning of each new application produced. To achieve this we build upon our «GeoAnalytics Visualization» framework, GAV, to provide a generic visualization framework for a diverse range of application areas and fully integrated with web tools such as Flash/Flex (GAV Flash) or optimized for performance with Microsoft DirectX (GAV). This framework is designed to provide integrated views of large information spaces, coordinated viewing of information in context, and to approach complex information through the use the overview and detail paradigm. These are the principles behind the VA concept which have made it such a powerful idea in the scientific community. NCVA will show the effectiveness of the technology and provide results in four distinct forms:

1.Valuable applications, addressing key concerns for our partners in industry, public services and academia.
2.New or enhanced methods within GAV framework developed for these purposes but which will then be available to users in other potential areas of interest.
3.Novel techniques to facilitate the recording, review and dissemination of the reasoning within the VA process allowing the analyst to use interactive ‘story-telling’ to convey how conclusions are reached, improving the credibility of the results obtained.
4.New results from evaluation of these applications and techniques in the workplace context, feeding back into new and improved developments in a continuous cycle.
Applied research will be carried out in the context of a number of applications, drawn from diverse areas associated with the activities of the industrial partners, showing the generality of the underlying framework. Each of these applications can also be seen as a demonstrator of the technology. In this work, we will follow a ‘science-to-solutions’ approach to address the entire research, development and deployment process. The strong engagement by industry and public service partners that depend on state-of-the-art VA tools will guarantee that users will be involved from the start and will participate in the definition of the applied research agenda. The partners will, in turn, gain access to front line research, prototypes and components for integrating new and innovative VA tools.

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Postal addresses

Linköping
All units but the Faculty of Health Sciences
Linköping University
SE-581 83 LINKÖPING
Sweden

Tel: +46 13 28 10 00
Fax: +46 13 14 94 03
e-mail: liu@liu.se
Please notice that questions regarding study programmes, admission, application procedures, enrolment etc, should be sent to studyinfo@liu.se

Faculty of Health Sciences
Hälsouniversitetet
Universitetssjukhuset
SE-581 85 LINKÖPING

Tel: +46 13 22 20 00

Norrköping
All units
Linköping University
Campus Norrkšping
SE-601 74 NORRKÖPING

Tel switchboard: +46 11 36 30 00
Fax: +46 11 26 58 50

Economist: http://www.economist.com/britain-in-context/
OECD: http://www.oecd.org/innovation/strategy/charting
Statistics Denmark: http://www.dst.dk/OmDS/BagTal/Arkiv/2010-05-06-Motorcykler.aspx
OECD: http://vitagate.itn.liu.se/GAV/development/testVislet/
SCB and Eurostat: http://swedeneurostat.blogspot.com/2010/03/education-in-eu-example-with-vislets.html#links
Goteborg City: http://www.samhallsutvecklingen.se/413/stora-inkomstskillnader-i-goteborg/
OECD eXplorer: http://www.ncomva.com/?p=125 (NComVA Vislet demo with OECD eXplorer ageing population in EU 1990-2008).
OECD Factbook: http://www.ncomva.com/?page_id=111 (NComVA Vislet Demo with OECD Factbook – fertility versus women employment rate for 1970-2006)
OECD Regional development: http://www.oecd.org/gov/regional/statisticsindicators
World eXplorer: http://www.ncomva.com/?page_id=297/

GRAPHICS: Desempleo de los jóvenes, OCDE

OCDE, Directorate for Employment.
RISING YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT DURING THE CRISIS: HOW TO PREVENT NEGATIVE LONG-TERM CONSEQUENCES ON A GENERATION?
OECD
2, rue André-Pascal
75775 Paris, CEDEX 16
France
Copyright OECD 2010

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Estadística INTERACTIVA.
Unemployment has risen sharply during the recession, and young people have been particularly hard hit. Even in good times, the youth unemployment rate (15-to-24-year-olds) can be two to three times that of adults, but it has increased much more rapidly during the crisis; even in Germany, young people are now one and half times more likely to be unemployed than prime age workers, while in Sweden their risk is four times greater.

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VÍDEO estadístico.
There are currently nearly 15 million unemployed young people in the OECD area, about four million more than at the end of 2007.
In countries like France and Italy, about one youth in four on the labour market is unemployed, while in Spain the level rises to more than 40%.

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SIN SOLUCIÓN, 2010-2011

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Tasa de DESEMPLEO JOVEN y variación entre 2005 y 2007.
How to read the figure? Denmark located in Quadrant C had a youth unemployment rate of 7.8% in 2005-07 and experienced a decrease of 1.9 percentage points of its rate compared with 1995-97.

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El desempleo joven en España dobla la tasa de los adultos.
How to read the figure? All countries above the «Equal» line have a higher youth unemployment rate than that of adults. For example in Sweden, youth have an unemployment rate that is more than four times that of adults compared with three times in Greece and twice in Japan

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Deterioro de la tasa
How to read the figure? The youth unemployment rate reached 43.5% in Spain (located in Quadrant B) in the fourth quarter of 2009, an increase of 24.7 percentage points since the fourth quarter of 2007.

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Paro y educación
% de jóvenes que encuentran trabajo.
High performers: En menos de seis meses después de dejar la educación. CON SUERTE.
Poorly-integrated: Entran y salen del mercado laboral, sin continuidad. MALO.
Left-Behind: cinco años desempleados. HORROROSO.
Returning to education: han trabajado, pero vuelven a los estudios para seguir su formación. MEJOR ESTO QUE NADA.

Box 2. School-to-work transition pathways of students having left secondary education
To account for the dynamic nature of youth labour market situations and identify the different pathways that youth can take after leaving secondary education, Quintini and Manfredi (2009) exploit monthly observations in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for the United States and the European Community Household Panel survey for Europe.
Figure A shows the share of youth in one of four key pathways identified by Quintini and Manfredi (2009). Over a five-year period after leaving education: «High performers» spend most of their time – 70% or more – in employment and take less than six months to find their first job after leaving school; «Poorly-integrated new entrants» move in and out of employment, unemployment, inactivity and sometimes education, signaling difficulties in settling on a promising career path; «Left-behind» youth spend most of the five years in unemployment or inactivity; «Returning to education» leave education for a spell on the labour market of varying length but ultimately return to complete high school – if they have dropped out before completion – or to attend tertiary education.
The United States has a significantly larger share of high performers than Europe and many more youth return to education after a spell out of work and studying.* As a result, the share of youth facing serious difficulties on the labour market –left behind and poorly-integrated new entrants – is 18 percentage points smaller in the United States than in Europe. In Europe, 30% of youth face difficulties settling into the labour market and another 15% are trapped in long-term unemployment or inactivity. On the other hand, in the United States, poor integration affects 21% of youth and the fact that long-term unemployment is uncommon reduces the share of youth Left Behind to just 6% of youth facing long-term inactivity.

GRAPHIC: ‘Kurzarbeit’ y paro

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Medidas contra la crisis: Kurzarbeit.
El capitalismo recurre al marxismo.
Reducción de las horas de trabajo y rebaja de honorarios, financiación del Estado.
Alternativa a los despidos.
Desde Alemania. Aplicado en Austria.

La OCDE afirma que el sistema ha salvado 500.000 puestos de trabajo durante la crisis. Pero no ha sido la única medida:

‘Like other OCDE countries, Germany has taken a number of measures to reinforce the assistance available to job losers or other workers whose well-being is threatened by the economic downturn. In particular (and apart from the expanded short-time work scheme mentioned above), Germany has added new employment service staff, has temporarily lowered some social insurance contributions and has expanded subsidies for vocational training for workers threatened by unemployment, older workers in SMEs and temporary agency workers’.

Otros casos sorprendentes son Noruega y Holanda, como se observa en el gráfico.

GRAPHICS: Costes laborales

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OCDE Economic Surveys
European Union
13 de septiembre de 2009
Previo registro

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El coste de cada puesto de trabajo.
Italia y España, los más caros, los menos competitivos.

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Eurostat, euroindicators.
15 de septiembre de 2009

El costa laboral por hora en España ha aumentado un 6% con respecto con el mismo periodo del año anterior, cifra superior a la media de la UE27 (+3,7%).
Por encima de España, Portugal (+6,1%), Grecia (+6,6%), Hungría (+7,1%), Finlandia (+8,6), Rumanía (+11,7%) y Bulgaria (+15,5%).

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Esta es la proyección acumulada de la OCDE de crecimiento del PIB para 2009-2010.
Estonia, Irlanda, Hungria e Islandia son los países más afectados por la recesión.
OCDE Economic Surveys.
Previo registro

GRAPHICS: La recesión se termina, en Augusta

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Ben Shalom Bernanke, presidente de la Reserva Federal de EEUU, afirmó ayer que ‘la recesión probablemente ha terminado’. Bernanke fue criticado por ser demasiado académico y lento en sus pasos para atajar la crisis actual y ha liderado los planes de ayuda de Obama.

1. Las previsiones de la OCDE

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España es el país que más empleo a destruido desde enero de 2008 hasta hoy: casi un 9% de la fuerza laboral.
Informe de la OCDE, 3 de septiembre de 2009.

2. Las previsiones de la Comisión Europea

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La Comisión Europea predice una recuperación en el último cuarto de 2009, pero el PIB caerá un 4% en la zona euro en el total anual.

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España finalizará el año 2009 con decrecimiento del PIB, un -0,2% en el último cuatrimestre y un -3,7% en el año.
Interim Forecast, EC, 14 de septiembre de 2009

3. Las previsiones de Standar & Poor’s

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El informe dado a conocer el pasado 14 de septiembre por Standar & Poor’s pone de relieve que la crisis en Europa se va a prolongar. Sobre estas líneas el titular general, muy expresivo.

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Según Standar & Poor’s, el PIB español no crece en 2010 (-0,6%). La inflación remonta un poco hasta el 0,8% y el desempleo se sitúa en el 21%.

4. Las previsiones del FMI

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El Fondo Monetario Internacional advierte hoy mismo:
Los gobiernos necesitan un plan para deshacerse de los productos tóxicos y alejar el riesgo. ¿No tienen un plan? Los G20, ¿sirven para algo?

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Estas son las últimas previsiones del FMI, la revisión de julio.
España no crece ni en 2009 ni en 2010.

GRAPHICS: ‘The Green Shoots’

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Financial Times abre con los famosos ‘brotes verdes’ que mencionó Obama.
Jean-Claude Trichet también los ha visto.
La OCDE habla de una ‘pausa’ en la recesión.
EEUU no levanta cabeza.

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Sin embargo, The Guardian recuerda en páginas interiores, con este gráfico titulado ¿Brotes verdes o raíces poco profundas?, que el mundo todavía está en recesión, tomando las palabras del jefe ejecutivo del HSBC, Michael Geoghegan.