GRAPHICS: Best2010, AVE a Valencia

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Video gráfico, pulse aquí
Por David Alameda
EL MUNDO
Diciembre 2010

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Gráfico interactivo, pulse aquí.
Por Javier Barriocanal
EL MUNDO
Diciembre 2010

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Una oportunidad para Valencia
Por Pedro Jiménez
EL MUNDO
19 de diciembre 2010

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Locomotoras históricas
Por Rafael Estrada
EL MUNDO
17 de diciembre de 2010

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El AVE a Valencia
Por Rafael Estrada
EL MUNDO
17 de diciembre de 2010

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Atocha vs Joaquín Sorolla
Por Pedro Jiménez
EL MUNDO.
19 de diciembre 2010

GRAPHICS: Emisiones de CO2, CDIAC

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (Thomas A. Boden, Director), which includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases, has served as the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since 1982.

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EEUU
Total y per cápita, toneladas métricas de carbón

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China

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India

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España

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Magnifica visualización actualizada en la portada de hoy del Washington Post.

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En internet.

MAPS: Sequía, 2000-2099, UCAR

Drought under global warning: a review
Aiguo Dai
Publication: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change
National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

The detailed analysis concludes that warming temperatures associated with climate change will likely create increasingly dry conditions across much of the globe in the next 30 years, possibly reaching a scale in some regions by the end of the century that has rarely, if ever, been observed in modern times.

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Future drought. These four maps illustrate the potential for future drought worldwide over the decades indicated, based on current projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. These maps are not intended as forecasts, since the actual course of projected greenhouse gas emissions as well as natural climate variations could alter the drought patterns.

The maps use a common measure, the Palmer Drought Severity Index, which assigns positive numbers when conditions are unusually wet for a particular region, and negative numbers when conditions are unusually dry. A reading of -4 or below is considered extreme drought. Regions that are blue or green will likely be at lower risk of drought, while those in the red and purple spectrum could face more unusually extreme drought conditions. (Courtesy Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews, redrawn by UCAR. This image is freely available for media use. Please credit the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research promotes partnership in a collaborative community dedicated to understanding the atmosphere—the air around us—and the complex processes that make up the Earth system, from the ocean floor to the Sun’s core. more below >

The National Center for Atmospheric Research provides research, observing and computing facilities, and a variety of services for the atmospheric and Earth sciences community. more below >

UCAR Community Programs provide leadership, services, and innovation in support of the community’s education and research goals. more below >

NCAR and the UCAR Community Programs are managed by UCAR, a nonprofit consortium of research universities, on behalf of the National Science Foundation and the university community.

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THE PALMER DROUGHT SEVERITY INDEX

The Palmer Index was developed by Wayne Palmer in the 1960s and uses temperature and rainfall information in a formula to determine dryness. It has become the semi-official drought index.

The Palmer Index is most effective in determining long term drought—a matter of several months—and is not as good with short-term forecasts (a matter of weeks). It uses a 0 as normal, and drought is shown in terms of minus numbers; for example, minus 2 is moderate drought, minus 3 is severe drought, and minus 4 is extreme drought. At present, northern Virginia is at a minus 4.0 point; north central Maryland is at a minus 4.2 level, and southern Maryland is at least a minus 4 level.

The Palmer Index can also reflect excess rain using a corresponding level reflected by plus figures; i.e., 0 is normal, plus 2 is moderate rainfall, etc. At present, north central Iowa is at a plus 5.2 level, and parts of South Dakota are even higher.

The advantage of the Palmer Index is that it is standardized to local climate, so it can be applied to any part of the country to demonstrate relative drought or rainfall conditions. The negative is that it is not as good for short term forecasts, and is not particularly useful in calculating supplies of water locked up in snow, so it works best east of the Continental Divide.

The Crop Moisture Index (CMI) is also a formula that was also developed by Wayne Palmer subsequent to his development of the Palmer Drought Index.

The CMI responds more rapidly than the Palmer Index and can change considerably from week to week, so it is more effective in calculating short-term abnormal dryness or wetness affecting agriculture.

CMI is designed to indicate normal conditions at the beginning and end of the growing season; it uses the same levels as the Palmer Drought Index.

It differs from the Palmer Index in that the formula places less weight on the data from previous weeks and more weight on the recent week.

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The Palmer Drought Indices

The Palmer Z Index measures short-term drought on a monthly scale. The Palmer Crop Moisture Index (CMI) measures short-term drought on a weekly scale and is used to quantify drought’s impacts on agriculture during the growing season.

The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) (known operationally as the Palmer Drought Index (PDI)) attempts to measure the duration and intensity of the long-term drought-inducing circulation patterns. Long-term drought is cumulative, so the intensity of drought during the current month is dependent on the current weather patterns plus the cumulative patterns of previous months. Since weather patterns can change almost literally overnight from a long-term drought pattern to a long-term wet pattern, the PDSI (PDI) can respond fairly rapidly.

The hydrological impacts of drought (e.g., reservoir levels, groundwater levels, etc.) take longer to develop and it takes longer to recover from them. The Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI), another long-term drought index, was developed to quantify these hydrological effects. The PHDI responds more slowly to changing conditions than the PDSI (PDI).

GRAPHICS: Huella ecológica, WWF

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Living Planet Report

Publication details
Published in October 2010 by WWF – World Wide
Fund For Nature (Formerly World Wildlife Fund),
Gland, Switzerland. Any reproduction in full or in
part of this publication must mention the title and
credit the above-mentioned publisher as the
copyright owner.

© Text and graphics: 2010 WWF
All rights reserved
The material and the geographical designations in
this report do not imply the expression of any opinion
whatsoever on the part of WWF concerning the legal
status of any country, territory, or area, or concerning
the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

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La huella ecológica.
1961-2007
La biocapacidad total sería un planeta Tierra.

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La productividad del planeta se come todos los recursos para regenerarla (1,5 tierras).
Enemigo número 1: el carbón.

MAPS: Cráteres de la luna, NASA

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Mapa topográfico de la luna.
Cuando era joven, fue bombardeada por dos poblaciones distintas de asteroides.

Fuente: NASA.

Figure 5: A lunar topographic map showing the Moon from the vantage point of the eastern limb. In this view, the yellow circles represent some of the 5185 craters equal to or greater than 20 km found on the Moon and counted in this study. On the left side of the Moon seen in this view is part of the familiar part of the Moon observed from Earth (the eastern part of the nearside). In the middle left-most part of the globe is Mare Tranquillitatis (light blue) the site of the Apollo 11 landing, and above this an oval-appearing region (Mare Serenitatis; dark blue) the site of the Apollo 17 landing. Most of the dark blue areas are lunar maria, low lying regions composed of volcanic lava flows that formed after the heavily cratered lunar highlands (and are thus much less cratered). The topography is derived from over 2.4 billion shots made by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on board the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The large near-circular basins (large yellow circles) show the effects of the early impacts on early planetary crusts in the inner solar system, including the Earth. Credit: NASA/Goddard/MIT/Brown

PHOTO: Haití, terremoto y puerto, NASA

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Haiti: 7.0 Quake Near Port Au Prince (as of 21 Jan 2010)

Imágenes NASA terremto

The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA’s Terra spacecraft captured this false color image of Haiti, on January 21, 2010, nine days after a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck the region and caused massive damage and loss of life, and one day after a large 5.9 aftershock caused additional damage. While ASTER’s 15-meter (50-foot) resolution is not sufficient to see damaged buildings, it can be used to identify other results of the shaking. Tiny dots of white against the plant-covered landscape (red in this image) are possible landslides, a common occurrence in mountainous terrain after large earthquakes. The possible landslides were identified by carefully comparing the new image with an image acquired one year previously.

Port-au-Prince, Haiti’s capital, is silver in the false color image. The rivers are pale blue, while the ocean is dark blue. Exposed soil is white.

NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team. Caption adapted from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Photojournal.

Instrument:

Terra – ASTER

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Los barcos en Puerto Príncipe

Imágenes NASA terremto

Ships carrying relief supplies and aid stream into Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in this image taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite on January 21, 2010. The city’s port was badly damaged in the massive 7.0 earthquake that hit the island on January 12. On January 20, one pier re-opened, allowing ships to dock for the first time since the earthquake, said news reports.

The newly reopened pier is the city’s south pier, the narrow strip that juts out into the water in this image. Part of the pier collapsed in the earthquake, but the remaining structure is just stable enough to support a single truck offloading supplies from docked ships, reported CNN.

Tiny streaks of white in the dark blue water are ships. The largest ship in the scene may be the USNS Comfort, a 273-meter (894-foot) long U.S. Navy hospital ship that was taking patients by helicopter until a pier could open up, according to Business Week.

Though its capacity is limited, the fragile pier should speed the distribution of food and other supplies to earthquake victims. Prior to January 20, aid had been coming into Port-au-Prince on airplanes arriving on a single runway, said news reports. The ships have a much greater capacity.

Port-au-Prince itself is blue gray in this false color image. At this scale, the only visible earthquake damage is the shortened pier, but the image does reveal how densely constructed the city was. Plant-covered land is red. Little open, plant-covered ground can be seen in the heart of the city.

1. References

2. CNN. (2010, January 21). Haiti pier opens, road laid into Port-au-Prince. Accessed January 21, 2010.

3. Dolmetsch, C, and Varner, B. (2010, January 21). U.S.-rescued Haitian Victims Treated on Hospital Ship. Business Week. Accessed January 21, 2010.

4. Leonard, T. (2010, January 20). Haiti earthquake: damaged port reopens to aid ships. Telegraph. Accessed January 21, 2010.

5. Military Seacraft Command. USNS Comfort. Accessed January 21, 2010.

NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team. Caption by Holli Riebeek.

Instrument:

Terra – ASTER

MAPS: Haití, intervenciones de ACTED

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Haïti: Interventions d’ACTED au 20 janvier 2010

Source(s):

– Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development (ACTED)

ACTED

Qui sommes-nous ?

A propos d’ACTED

ACTED (Agence d’Aide à la Coopération Technique Et au Développement) est une organisation non gouvernementale créée en 1993. Indépendante, privée et sans but lucratif, ACTED œuvre dans le respect d’… lire la suite

Historique

L’Agence d’Aide à la Coopération Technique et au Développement (ACTED) est une ONG humanitaire apolitique et non-confessionnelle créée en Afghanistan.